One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology (the study of human origins) focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens.

Roughly 300,000 years ago, the Old World was occupied by a morphologically diverse group of hominids. In North America, Africa and the Middle East there were Homo sapiens; in Asia, Homo erectus; and in Europe, Homo neanderthalensis. By 130,000 years ago, Neanderthals had all become so anatomically distinct that they were classified as a separate species — Homo neanderthalensis. Approximately 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, Cro-magnoids (our ancestors) suddenly appeared on this planet. The Neanderthals were annihilated in North America, Africa and Asia by 40,000 years ago, and in Europe by 25-30,000 years ago. To date, no definite Neanderthal specimens newer than 25,000 years ago have ever been found.

Neanderthal HunterIn 1999, the skeleton of a child was unearthed in Lapido, Portugal. Dated to around 25,000 years ago, the remains show a mixture of Neanderthal and modern features, suggesting it may be a hybrid. But, small fragments of Neanderthal DNA extracted from three different specimens show that they were not closely related to any present day human populations.

The global paleoanthropological and archaeological picture changed dramatically with the sudden and unexpected appearance of Homo Sapiens Sapiens (Cro-Magnon or Modern Man).

The placement of Cro-Magnons on the prison planet caused abrupt and dramatic change in subsistence patterns, tools and symbolic expression worldwide. This stunning change in cultural adaptation was not merely a quantitative one, but one that represented a significant departure from all earlier humanoid behavior, reflecting a major qualitative transformation. It was literally a creative explosion which exhibited technological ingenuity, social formations, and ideological complexity never before seen on Earth. While early Cro-Magnons were anatomically modern, they were not yet behaviorally modern. It is significant to note that modern anatomy pre-dates modern behavior.

The sudden appearance of modern humans placed Neanderthals in direct competition with our ancestors for resources. Though larger, stronger and faster than Cro-Magnons, it was a competition that the Neanderthals lost. There was much scientific debate as to whether it was climatic change, or Cro-Magnon’s sudden appearance, that resulted in the demise of the Neanderthals. Studies have since concluded that it was the competition with our ancestors, not climate, that resulted in Neanderthal extermination.

While there has been a great deal of effort by evolutionists in the last century to “construct” an evolutionary link between Neanderthals and Cro-magnons, to date none has ever been proven to be accurate or true. Several of the attempts were actually scientifically proven to be intentional frauds.

NOTE: The oldest “prehistoric” cave drawings and paintings, petroglyphs and other forms of stone art are estimated to be from 20,000 years ago. Many of the academic community have inaccurately portrayed the early artists as Neanderthal man, but Neanderthals were virtually exterminated by our Cro-Magnon ancestors thousands of years earlier.

Neanderthals are not the ancestors of modern humans.

Modern humans do not have Neanderthal ancestors in their family tree, a DNA study concluded. The DNA extracted from the ribs of a Neanderthal infant buried in southern Russia 29,000 years ago, was found to be too distinct from modern human DNA, to be related.

“There wasn’t much, if any mixture, between Neanderthals and modern humans,” said William Goodwin, of the University of Glasgow, UK. “Though they co-existed, we can’t find any evidence of genetic material being passed from Neanderthals to modern humans.” The work, published in the journal Nature, contradicts evidence from ancient remains of a child found in Portugal, which appeared to combine Neanderthal and human features. Those researchers concluded that some interbreeding must have taken place, but were later proven wrong.

The bones from the Neanderthal infant were very well preserved, and the child must have been among the last of the Neanderthals as they died out about 30,000 years ago. Research, by Dr Goodwin, along with Swedish and Russian colleagues, agrees with the findings of the first analysis of Neanderthal DNA in 1997. That study of DNA, taken from the first Neanderthal skeleton found in the Feldhofer Cave in Germany in 1856, supports the theory that modern humans replaced Neanderthals.

According to Dr Goodwin, the DNA sequence from the infant was very similar to the specimen from the Feldhofer Cave, proving that there was little diversity among Neanderthals. “If they had been very diverse at the DNA level, they could have encompassed modern humans. The fact that these two Neanderthals are closely related and not related to modern humans, implies that they don’t have the diversity to encompass a modern human gene pool,” said Dr Goodwin.

DNA comparisons also showed that different ethnic groups do not have any links to Neanderthals. In a commentary on the research in Nature, Matthias Hoss, of the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, said the two studies provide the most reliable proof so far of the authenticity of ancient DNA sequences. The similar features of the two samples “argues against the idea that modern Europeans are at least partly of Neanderthal origin,” he said.

neanderthals lost the competiton for food and territory to us

Another study by a group of geneticists, coordinated by Guido Barbujani and David Caramelli of the Universities of Ferrara and Florence, shows that a Cro-Magnoid individual who lived in Southern Italy 28,000 years ago was a modern European, genetically as well as anatomically. The Cro-Magnoid people briefly coexisted in Europe with other humanoids, the Neanderthals, whose anatomy and DNA were clearly different from ours. However, obtaining a reliable sequence of Cro-Magnoid DNA was technically challenging. “The risk in the study of ancient individuals is to attribute to the fossil specimen the DNA left there by archaeologists or biologists who manipulated it,” Barbujani says. “To avoid that, we followed all phases of the retrieval of the fossil bones and typed the DNA sequences of all people who had any contacts with them.”

The researchers wrote in the newly published paper: “The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neanderthals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans.” The results demonstrate for the first time that the anatomical differences between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnoids were associated with clear genetic differences. The Neanderthals who lived for nearly 300,000 years, are not the ancestors of modern humans, who suddenly appeared 50,000 – 60,000 years ago. Despite any similarities of Neanderthals to modern man, they have no direct link to human evolution. In fact, it has been proven that our intelligence is not the result of evolution, but is rather the direct result of genetic regression